Day 1 :
Rice University, USA
Yizhi Jane Tao, Ph.D., is a Chinese biochemist, structural biologist, and Professor of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at Rice University in Houston, Texas. Professor Tao led a team of researchers to be the first to map the structure of the influenza A virus nucleoprotein to an atomic level, a feat which circulated widely in the popular She was named among the top ten most influential Chinese of 2006 by a consortium of China's leading media outlets including Phoenix Satellite Television, China News Service, Asia Newsweek, and World Journal.
Many enveloped viruses encode a matrix protein. In the influenza A virus, the matrix protein M1 polymerizes into a rigid protein layer underneath the viral envelope to help enforce the shape and structural integrity of intact viruses. The influenza virus M1 is also known to mediate virus budding as well as the nuclear export of the viral nucleocapsids and their subsequent packaging into nascent viral particles. Despite extensive studies on the influenza virus M1 (FLUA-M1), only crystal structures of its N-terminal domain are available. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length M1 from another orthomyxovirus infecting fish, the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). The structure of ISAV-M1 assumes the shape of an elbow, with its N-domain closely resembling to that of the FluA-M1. The C-domain, which is connected to the N-domain through a flexible linker, is made of four a-helices packed as a tight bundle. In the crystal, ISAV-M1 monomers form infinite two-dimensional (2-D) arrays with a network of interactions involving both the N- and C-domains. Results from liposome flotation assays indicated that ISAV-M1 binds membrane via electrostatic interactions that are primarily mediated by a positively charged surface loop from the N-domain. Cryo-electron tomography reconstruction of intact ISA virions identified a matrix protein layer adjacent to the inner leaflet of the viral membrane. The physical dimensions of the virion-associated matrix layer are consistent with the 2-D ISAV-M1 crystal lattice, suggesting that the crystal lattice is a valid model for studying M1-M1, M1-membrane, and M1-RNP interactions in the virion.
President Foundation de Beaumont Bonelli for Cancer Research, ITALY
Giulio Tarro graduated from Medicine School, Naples University (1962). Research Associate, Division of Virology and Cancer Research, Children’s Hospital (1965-1968), Assistant Professor of Research Pediatrics, College Medicine (1968-1969), Cincinnati University, Ohio. Oncological Virology Professor, Naples University (1972-1985). Chief Division Virology (1973-2003), Head Department Diagnostic Laboratories, (2003-2006). D. Cotugno Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Naples; Emeritus, 2006 -. Since 2007 Chairman Committee of Biotechnologies and VirusSphere, World Academy Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Adjunct Professor Department Biology, Temple University, College of Science and Technology, Philadelphia, recipient of the Sbarro Health Research Organization lifetime achievement award (2010). President Foundation de Beaumont Bonelli for Cancer Research.
The history of flu viruses teaches that influence originates from birds, usually aquatic, then it is transferred to man through the leap into pigs. The promiscuity of the herds, facilitates this transition and then the spread. Three pandemics caused by influenza A viruses, which occurred in the 20th century, have all had this origin: the ‘Spanish flu’ (1918, H1N1), the ‘Asian flu’ (1957, H2N2) and the ‘Hong Kong flu’ (1968, H3N2). The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus acted during the winter in Australia and New Zealand yielding a pattern effect for the treatment of patients during the winter in the Northern Hemisphere. The performance of rapid diagnostic test for the detection of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus was evaluated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The findings of severe respiratory disease concurrent with the circulation of H1N1 influenza was proved by the aforementioned test. Even the potential impact of pandemic influenza during the Hajj pilgrimage was taken in account to reduce the substantial effect on the crowd to spread the infection.
- Track 1:Pathogenicity of Influenza Virus
Track 3:Influenza: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Track 5:Zoonotic Diseases: Global Infectious Disease Burden
Location: Birmingham, UK
University of Chicago Medicine
Sherwin Morgan completed his respiratory care training from Malcolm X College of Respiratory Care in Chicago, IL. He is an advanced respiratory care practitioner with the National Board for Respiratory Care in the United States. He is Clinical Practice and Development /Educator/Research Coordinator for the Department of Respiratory Care Services, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Chicago Medicine. He has published more than 25 peer review papers in multiple medical journals. He has designed, engineered, and collaborated with a number of research studies with the pulmonary medicine department.
Recognition of respiratory illness (RI) is difficult and requires a respiratory viral panel (RVP) to assist with establishing an accurate clinical diagnosis. Influenza and non-influenza like respiratory illness often masquerades as asthma-like. Because the initial differential diagnosis includes asthma, this can lead to treatment confusion and an underestimation for the primary causes of air-flow obstruction. Viral related bronchospasm with air-flow obstruction (AFO) is difficult to ameliorate with bronchodilator therapy when associated with bronchiolitis. Emerging research from histopathology of rat lung tissue study is providing valuable information as to how many viral agents affect lung pathophysiology. These viruses are high pathogenic and may cause a change in bronchial wall structure, peri bronchial thickening and intravascular hemorrhage. These viruses may be the root cause of global epidemics and pandemics. Globally the H1N1 pandemic 2009 caused over 18,000 deaths. Non-influenza viruses such as enterovirus D-68 has been having a profound effect globally and responsible for deaths in the USA and Philippines. Zoonotic viruses such as Coronavirus 229E has been linked to Middle East Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Many viruses are passed bi-directionally between animal and humans, 2017 the USA had a dog flu epidemic. Viral lung infections are known to increase morbidity and mortality in patients with and without premorbid pulmonary disease. They are highly pathogenic and are known to increase mortality in patients with compromised immunes systems. Failure to recognize acute RI may respiratory failure where the support therapy is ventilator, proning, nitric oxide, ECMO. This can lead to complications such as; ARDS, and organ failure and severe acute respiratory syndrome. There have been case reports which indicated that high flow nasal cannula and heliox may be effective as supportive therapy. More study is needed to understand the relationship between acute RI and these support therapies.
Vincent Icheku BSc (Hons), M.Phil., PhD is a senior lecturer in the School of health and social care, London South Bank University, United Kingdom.
I received senior fellowship award in 2014; a national award for my contribution to UK higher education and reaching worldwide audience with my work by the UK Higher Education Academy. I am also, a nominee for the London South Bank University Best Teacher’s Award for 2015 and 2016 respectively.
My subject teaching expertise includes research methods, Public health/Health promotion, Social policies, Concept of interprofessional working in practice, Ethics and law. Research interest is in community and public health, published books and many Journal articles. He is currently Editor of UK Research Journal and a Senior Fellow, Higher Education Academy (SFHEA) and Fellow, Royal Society of Public Health (FRSPH).
Statement of the problem:
The World Health Organization (WHO) in May 2016 confirmed an outbreak of the Zika virus on the African island chain of Cape Verde, linking it to cases of the brain disease, microcephaly. This finding is of concern because Zika was first discovered in East Africa in 1947 with no known link to brain or birth disorders until the WHO reported findings. The question, therefore, is: if the Zika virus has been in Africa for 70 years, why wasn’t any association to microcephaly detected before the recent WHO findings in Brazil (see below) and Cape Verde? This study reviews the evidence linking Zika to microcephaly in view of recent cases of birth defects in Africa, with the aim of providing vital clues as to why there was no documented case of such birth defects in Africa, where the Zika virus originated.
The literature for this review was gathered through internet searches, including the websites of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and Public Health England (PHE).
Materials from these sources were reviewed on the link between the Zika virus and microcephaly in relation to the recent cases of birth defects in Africa. Two possible explanations emerged from the review. The first explanation suggests that the phenomenon called herd immunity may have taken place in Africa. The Zika virus cannot infect the same person twice because it reaches a stage where there are too few people left to be infected for transmission to be sustained. The second explanation suggests that microcephaly linked to birth defects is caused by other conditions.
The findings of this review opens up the debate on the connection between the Zika virus and the birth defect attributed to mosquito-borne microcephaly, given that there is no documented case of birth defect in Africa 69 years after the discovery of the Zika virus. Large-scale research is recommended on the Zika virus and pregnancy in Africa for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the virus in the continent.
University Hospital Center
Edmond Puca MD, PhD. He is an infectious diseases specialist. His fields of interest are tropical infectious diseases, especially leptospirosis and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. He has published a lot of paper in this field. He is member of editorial board of some infectious diseases journals and the scientific secretary congress committee
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease of global importance especially in developing countries, which continues to have a major impact on public health. The incidence of the disease is much higher in males.
Objectives: To describe the evidence regarding to the role of gender in leptospirosis, through a gender specific analysis of the clinical manifestations in patients diagnosed and treated for leptospirosis in our infectious diseases service during the 2006-2015 period and to give some data about leptospirosis in Albania for the last ten years.
Materials and methodology: We reviewed the epidemiologic data, risk factors and differences in clinical presentation between male and female patients. Diagnosis was established based on clinical presentation subsequently confirmed serologically by Anti-Leptospira IgM antbibodies through ELISA test.
Results: Between 2006-2015, 206 cases of confirmed leptospirosis were analysed. 185 (89.8%) were males and 21 patients (10.2%) were females. The highest incidence was observed in the 45-64 age groups. Overall mortality was found to be 7.7%. Mortality among female patients was 4.7%, whereas among males was 8.1%. Chi-square statistical analysis showed a p value of 0.577045, demonstrating no statistical significance in mortality between two genders.
Conclusions: There is a much higher incidence of leptospirosis in middle aged men. Mortality rate seems to be similar in males and female. While the difference in incidence may be related to exposure to risk factors, we believe that further investigations are necessary to study gender-based genetic and immunological predisposition.
Ethiopian Public Health Institute
Misgana has completed her Bsc on Public Health from Hawassa University and Since joining Ethiopian Public Health Institute in 2013, she has been working in Public Health Emergency Management department as Early Warning and Response Team officer and has been involved with studies related to public health emergencies and then become assistant researcher. Currently, she is studying Masters of Public Health in Field Epidemiology at St. Paul’s Hospital
Influenza is a significant source of morbidity and mortality and is estimated to result in up to five million cases and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The outbreak reported from Dangur district on 18-March-2016. We investigated to identify risk factors and to recommend control and prevention measures. Unmatched case control study was employed. Study subjects (50 cases, 100 controls) were interviewed. Cases were defined as any person, with sudden onset of fever >38ºC and cough or sore throat in the absence of other diagnosis. Controls were any person having the same characteristics with cases except having history of the above signs and symptoms. Medical records reviewed and suspected cases were identified from 09-Feb-2016 to 07-Apr-2016. Nine throat swab samples taken to confirm the diagnosis. Data was analyzed by using Epi-info version 7.1. We identified 433-suspected influenza cases with three deaths. Of the cases, 235(54.3%) were males. Attack-Rate was 6.8 per 1000 (7.3 in males and 6.2 in females per 1000). It affected all age groups with highest AR (18 per 1000) among 0-4 age groups. Factors associated with illness were having close contact with patient (OR: 3.27; 95%CI: 1.4-7.4, p=0.0044) and age (OR: 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.2, p=0.00). From the samples tested, seven confirmed positive. The study uncovered the occurrence of pdmH1N1 influenza virus in Dangur district. Having contact with cases is 4.1 times more likely to contract the disease and being at age group >5years is 0.09 times protective of contracting the disease. Strengthening routine surveillance is recommended.
Ethiopian Public Health Institute
Ketema has completed her BSC degree in public health at the age of 21 years from University of Gondar and post graduate studies at Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical colleague Department of Public Health. She is Assistant Researcher I in Public Health Emergency Management center of Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. She has done Surveillance data analysis, Health profile, Outbreak investigation and Surveillance system evaluation .
Influenza is an acute viral respiratory tract disease characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, prostration, coryza, sore throat and cough. We investigated investigated to identify the risk factors and to control the transmission and finally to come up with prevention and control measures. Unmatched case control study design was employed. Exposure and risk factor information was collected by face to face interview of cases and controls by using structured questionnaire. A total of 50 cases and 100 controls were taken . Median age is 26 year old for both cases and controls. On multivariate analysis only having contact history with similar patient(s) was statistically significantly associated with illness (OR: 19.5; 95%CI: 5.99-63.67; P value<0.001). Of the total 11 samples collected and tested by RT-PCR only seven were positive for influenza type A and sub types (six were pdmH1N1 and one H3N2 ) and four were negative result. Therefore, the cause of outbreak was influenza type A pdm H1N1. This investigation found that the outbreak primarily affected young children and young adults. clinical pictures. Since the causative agent and mode of transmissions responsible for the outbreak were known the prevention and control measures should be under taken and strengthen.